John F Turner, Ph.D.
 Title: Associate Professor
 Dept: Chemistry
 Office: SR 369
 Phone: 216-687-2465
 Address: 2121 Euclid Ave. SR 369, Cleveland, OH 44115

Courses Taught


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Research Keywords:
Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, infrared, IR, near infrared, NIR, visible, chemical imaging, multivariate analysis, chemometrics, mineral, biomineral, bone, teeth, biomaterials, implant materials, bioanalysis, spectral imaging, hyperspectral imaging, multispectral imaging, liquid crystal tunable filter, LCTF, acousto-optic tunable filter, AOTF, CCD, charge coupled device, spectroscopy, gemology, gemstone, mineralogy, geology, Raman database, poly-l-lactide, po
Postdoctorate Fellow, Functional Imaging, Carnegie Mellon University, 1999
Ph.D., Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, 1998
B.S., Chemistry, Youngstown State University, 1990
Brief Bio:
Dr. Turner helped pioneer the development of wide-field chemical imaging methodologies and presently heads the Advanced Chemical Imaging Facility at Cleveland State University.  Among his accomplishments are the first commercially available liquid crystal tunable filter Raman hyperspectral imager and the first acousto-optic tunable filter Hadamard transform spectrometer.  His early work in hyperspectral imaging lead to the development of new multivariate methods for image classification and, more recently, the development of spectral identity algorithms that enable hyperspectral image processing in real time.  These algorithms are finding use in other imaging applications such as facial recognition, object extraction, hazardous materials identification, fingerprint analysis, forensics, geology, and functional medical imaging.

The Turner laboratory houses the Advanced Chemical Imaging Facility (ACIF) where graduate and undergraduate researchers employ novel chemical imaging methods to study advanced biomaterial implant properties, the chemistry of biominerals such as bone and teeth, and geological minerals.  With the help of private mineral collectors and regional museums, the researchers at ACIF have created one of the most comprehensive Raman databases of geological and biomineral spectra in the world.  The database includes Raman spectra for several thousand mineral species and more than 150 gemstone minerals.  

Graduate students conducting research at ACIF have constructed a high throughput multi-mode chemical imaging microscope using novel wavelength selection and spatial multiplexing strategies based on acousto-optic and liquid crystal tunable filters. The instrument can perform Raman, fluorescence (emission and excitation), and visible/near-infrared (absorption and reflectance) chemical imaging. Of these spectral modalities, Raman is the most chemically specific.

The advantage of the wide-field approach is its enhanced image fidelity. With spatial resolutions near the diffraction limit of light, it is possible to investigate structures having spatial extents as small as ~200 nm using visible radiation in the far-field. The state-of-the-art wide-field approach employs multichannel detectors with as many as several million pixels. Each pixel measures the wavelength filtered optical radiation from a correspondingly small fraction of the field of view.  Wide-field imaging has been employed to view distant galaxies and microscopic occlusion within living cells.  Whether the samples are large or small, the aim is to reveal chemical information at each location within the image.  The wide-field result is a highly spatially-resolved image that reveals chemical composition at every image pixel.
Honors and Awards:
2009 Ohio Board of Regents Grant: CSI: College Science Investigation, A Forensics
        Academy for High School Juniors and Seniors. 6/1/09-5/31/10, $~280,000

2009 Invited Panel Review Member, National Science Foundation, CAREER panel.

2009 Invited Panel Review Member, National Science Foundation, Major Research
        Instrumentation (MRI) panel. 4/6/09-4/7/09

2008 Undergraduate Research Award, Microscopy Society of North East Ohio, Undergraduate
        Research Student Advisees, Warren Chang and Lee Panter

2008 Plenary Lecturer, Microscopy Society of Northeast Ohio, Cleveland State
        University, 10/28/2008.

2008 Earnest B.Yeager Award, Society for Applied Spectroscopy, Winner:
        Undergraduate Research Student Advisee, Nikolas J. Neric

2008 Undergraduate Award in Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemsitry,
        Cleveland State University, Winner: Undergraduate Research Student Advisee,
        Nikolas J. Neric

2008 Ohio Board of Regents Grant: CSI: College Science Investigation, A Forensics
        Academy for High School Juniors and Seniors. 6/1/08-5/30/09, $224,491

2008 Invited Panel Review Member, National Science Foundation, Biophotonics,
        Advanced Imaging, and Sensing for Human Health (BISH) panel.12/3/08-12/4/08

2007 Invited Panel Review Member, National Science Foundation, Biophotonics,
        Advanced Imaging, and Sensing for Human Health (BISH) panel.11/28/07-11/29/07

2007 Invited Speaker, Horizon Science Academy-Cleveland High School, Cleveland,
        OH, 10/31/08

2007 Reviewer, Journal of Chemometrics

2005 Winner,  Eighth Student Symposium of the Joint Cleveland State University and  
        Cleveland Clinic Foundation Ph.D. Program

2005 Winner,  North Coast Thermal Analysis Annual Student Symposium, March 17,

2004 Invited Short Course Lecturer: North American Thermal Analysis
        Society Meeting, Williamsburg, VA

2004 Winner,  North Coast Thermal Analysis Annual Student Symposium, March 18,

2004 Invited Panel Review Member, National Science Foundation,
        Technological Changes in Organic Electronics, Photonics and
        Magnetics, June 2004

2004 Reviewer, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

2004 Reviewer, Clinica Chimica Acta

2002 Reviewer, Clinica Chimica Acta

2002 SACP Starter Grant Award, Society for Analytical Chemists of
Research Interests:
Dr. Turners research interests include instrument development, applications in bioanalysis and materials characterization, and multivariate analysis. Each of these primary research areas is necessary for the advancement of chemical imaging.  The aim of chemical imaging is to acquire chemically meaningful images of the sample. Instead of intensity-based image structure, chemical images are most often spectrally based, and image color is related to chemical composition through image mapping algorithms that take into account spectral shape (qualitative) and spectral intensity (quantitative) differences in the pixels comprising the image dataset.

As part of his work, Dr. Turner directs graduate students in the construction of the next generation high throughput chemical imaging microscopes.  The development of improved chemical imaging methods is needed to advance many areas of bioanalysis and materials science.  Two related areas of bioanalysis are investigated in the Turner laboratories.  The area of investigation is to explore the sub-micron chemical architecture of biological tissues and living cells, and the interaction of living tissues with novel biomaterial implants and artificial cell scaffolds.  In particular, the effects of electromechanical stimulation of bone tissue grown on biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds is investigated as a potential method for guiding bone growth and repair processes.  The second area of bioanalytical investigation is directed towards the development of nondestructive and less invasive optical strategies for objectifying the diagnosis of precancerous lesions.  This research combines novel chemical imaging techniques with rapid multivariate methods to identify spectral and morphological markers of disease states in vivo and in vitro.  In particular, emphasis is placed on optical methods for differentiating precancerous cervical lesions from normal tissue based on intrinsic chemical differences.

As part of the work performed in the Turner laboratories, undergraduate and graduate researchers are exploring the use of Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging for the rapid on-site identification of geological minerals, biominerals, forensic samples, hazardous materials, and regulated substances.  To date, this research has resulted in one of the most comprehensive Raman databases of spectra ever undertaken.  The database includes geological minerals, biominerals, and hazardous substances as well as a comprehensive Raman gemstone database that includes spectra from gems originating from known mining localities.
Teaching Areas:
General Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Software Development
Chemical Information
Spectroscopic Methods
Instrumental Analysis
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Image Science
Professional Experience:
Optical / Laser Spectroscopy and Spectral Imaging

Biomaterials and Biological Tissue Characterization:
Investigation of the Effects of Electromechanical Stimulation on Osteogenesis in Bone Tissue and Artificial Scaffolds

Imaging and multivariate assessment of precancerous lesions in PAP

Imaging of Ca++ transients at tadpole neuromuscular junctions

Determination of Fibroblastic [Ca++] in vitro

Assessment and Characterization of Hepatocyte metabolic response and
vitality in an artificial Liver Assist Device (LAD)

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Semiconductor Characterization: Determination of strain localization in layered silicon
semiconductors using Raman Imaging

Coatings: Characterization and Performance

Polymer Blend Characterization: Characterization of surface architecture in chlorinated polyolefin coated thermoplastic olefins

Raman Imaging Microscopy and Fiber-Optic based Raman Spectroscopy

Fluorescence Imaging Microscopy and Macroscopy

Near-Infrared Multiplexed Spectroscopy and Imaging

Ultra-Violet/Visible Spectroscopy and Imaging

Liquid Crystal Tunable Filters (LCTFs) and Acousto-Optic Tunable Filters
(AOTFs): Design, characterization, and integration with spectroscopic and imaging instrumentation.

Instrument Development

1997 LCTF Macroscopic Chemical Imaging Fluorometer, Tomtec, Inc.
1995 LCTF Raman Chemical Imaging Microscope, the Falcon, ChemImage, Inc.
1995 Fiber Optic Raman Probe, the Raptor, ChemImage, Inc.
1994 Hadamard Transform AOTF Spectrometer

Multiplexed and Adaptive Optical Spectroscopy

Spectral and Hyperspectral Imaging Instrumentation for Macroscopic and
Microscopic Applications in Materials Science and Bioanalysis

On-line and At-line Process Analysis/Quality Control

Automated System Design and Integration

Fiber-Optic Probe and Hostile Environment Spectroscopic Probe

Charge Coupled Device (CCD), Charge Injection Device (CID),
Avalanche Photodiode and Photodiode Array Integration

LCTF, AOTF, and Step-Scan Image Filter Integration

Technology Transfer from Academic and R&D Laboratories to
Commercial Markets

Chemometrics and Multivariate Image Analysis

Spatiospectral Image Processing:
ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
Bandshape Analysis
CCA (Cosine Correlation Analysis)
CHA (Cosine Histogram Analysis)*
CLS/MLR (Classical Least Squares/Multiple Linear Regressions)
Confocal Deblurring
Edge/Boundary Detection
FA (Factor Analysis)
Fourier Transform Analysis
Hadamard Transform Analysis
PCA/PCR (Principle Components Analysis/ Principle Components
SIM (Spectral Identity Mapping)
Software Development

Instrument Interfacing and Data Analysis Software: (Languages include C/C++, OWL (Object Windows Library), MFC (Microsoft Function Classes), Visual Basic, C#, MatLab, ENVI/IDL, Macro Basic, and TckTL)
University Service:
Selected Areas of Service

Coordinator, Analytical Division, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH

Department Chair Search Committee

Graduate Committee, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH

Faculty Search Committee, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH

Computer Advisory Committee (Ad Hoc), Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH

Undergraduate Curriculum and Standards Committee, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH

Appointments and Professional Leave Review Committee, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH

Bylaws Committee, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH